Transferring tokens

This tutorial will show you how to transfer SC_Tokens between the main chain and a sidechain.

Prerequisites

  1. We will use the sidechain-cli within this tutorial. Download the binary and add it to your shellโ€™s path: https://github.com/input-output-hk/sidechains-tooling/releases.
  2. Download the bech32 conversion tool binary and add to your shell’s path: https://github.com/input-output-hk/bech32.
  3. If you have not done so already, create and fund your main chain and sidechain accounts: Create and fund your accounts.

Transfering tokens from a sidechain to the main chain

Transferring SC_Token from a sidechain to the main chain will require interfacing with the bridge smart contract to lock your desired amount of SC_Token to be claimed on the main chain. In this guide, you will use RemixIDE to interface with the bridge contract.

Step 01 - Setup contract interface in RemixIDE

Note: Make sure your Remix-compatible Web3 provider is configured to the EVM sidechain testnet. Eg: MetaMask.

  • In Remix, go to Deploy and Run transactions > select Injected Provider (MetaMask) for the environment > Load contract from address (0x696f686b2e6d616d626100000000000000000000)

Your RemixIDE will look similar to this with a contract interface: remix ide

Step 02 - Lock SC_Token

The lock function of the bridge contract takes the main-chain recipient’s address, but the recipient address must be converted to bech32 format.

  • Convert main-chain address to bech32 format:
./bech32 <<< addr_test1vpzhx6enc57e75n2ygcgdt7cz2c8akt5rk5qaxy7j6vc3ycgly0wh
6045736b33c53d9f526a223086afd812b07ed9741da80e989e96998893 #Returns the conversion

To ensure the address is recognized as a HEX string simply add 0x to the beginning of the converted address, eg: 0x6045736b33c53d9f526a223086afd812b07ed9741da80e989e96998893

  • Determine how many SC_Token you want to lock. The amount in SC_Token has to be a multiple of 10^9. For example, 10^9 wei on the sidechain will be 1 SC_Token on the main chain. Input the amount of SC_Token, in wei, you want to lock: eg, 1000000000 Wei == 1 SC_Token. Your Remix should look similar to this:

lock token

  • Select the lock button to initiate the transaction and follow the MetaMask prompts to confirm and sign the transaction.

Note: If the transaction appears to be stuck, ‘pending’ status, or MetaMask shows an invalid balance, try resetting MetaMask and submit the transaction again.

  • To get the transaction hash or verify that the transaction was successful, you can check MetaMask activity or the Remix console: meta

  • Alternatively, you can invoke the eth_getTransactionReceipt API method. You can request this until the receipt is returned or transaction times out:

curl -L -X POST -H 'Content-type:application/json' -d '{
"jsonrpc": "2.0",
"method": "eth_getTransactionReceipt",
"params": [INSERT_RAW_TX],
"id": 1
}' https://faucet.sidechain.evmtestnet.iohkdev.io/ | jq

Step 03 - Wait for transaction to be processed and obtain MerkleProof

  • Get the current sidechain status by invoking sidechain_getStatus:
curl -L -X POST -H 'Content-type:application/json' -d '{
   "jsonrpc": "2.0",
   "method": "sidechain_getStatus",
   "params": [],
   "id": 1
   }' https://faucet.sidechain.evmtestnet.iohkdev.io/ | jq -r

This shows on which epoch and phase the lock() transaction happened. If it happened during epoch N on epochPhase regular you can obtain the Merkle proof on epoch N since epochPhase changes to handover. If it happened during epoch N on epochPhase closedTransactionBatch or handover, you can obtain the Merkle proof on epoch N+1 since epochPhase changes to handover.

  • Get transaction index for the epoch the lock transaction will be processed by invoking the sidechain_getOutgoingTransactions API method:
curl -L -X POST -H 'Content-type:application/json' -d '{
  "jsonrpc": "2.0",
  "method": "sidechain_getOutgoingTransactions",
  "params": [<N or N+1>],
  "id": 1
  }' https://faucet.sidechain.evmtestnet.iohkdev.io/ | jq

Example output:

{
  "jsonrpc": "2.0",
  "result": {
    "transactions": [
      {
        "value": "0x1",
        "recipient": "0x6041e633c6b54572165a1563291c147dadb803667c99fc8c55ff3762fb",
        "txIndex": 0
      }
    ]
  },
  "id": 1
}

To obtain the merkleProof matching the recipient and amount used to lock tokens, proceed as follows.

  • Wait until the epochPhase changes to handover of epoch N or N+1 and obtain the Merkle proof for your lock action by invoking the sidechain_getOutgoingTxMerkleProof API method:
curl -L -X POST -H 'Content-type:application/json' -d '{
  "jsonrpc": "2.0",
  "method": "sidechain_getOutgoingTxMerkleProof",
  "params": [<N or N+1>, <txIndex>],
  "id": 1
  }' https://faucet.sidechain.evmtestnet.iohkdev.io/ | jq

Example:

curl -L -X POST https://faucet.sidechain.evmtestnet.iohkdev.io/ -H 'Content-type:application/json' -d '{"jsonrpc": "2.0", "method": "sidechain_getOutgoingTxMerkleProof", "params": [1295, 1], "id": 1}' | jq

{
  "jsonrpc": "2.0",
  "result": {
    "proof": {
      "bytes": "0xd8799fd8799f0101581d6045736b33c53d9f526a223086afd812b07ed9741da80e989e96998893d8799f5820772485d60f6744cf252f26560413aae8d28c82a88b1c77eede792f28965f4e79ffff9fd8799f005820ed69142610619b748ec5cd657e418c1c891c3a176900376d12db0b3c406a0a38ffffff",
      "info": {
        "transaction": {
          "value": "0x1",
          "recipient": "0x6045736b33c53d9f526a223086afd812b07ed9741da80e989e96998893",
          "txIndex": 1
        },
        "merkleRootHash": "0xaacd27079b9c8b8bd17693beccb8997b4b7b1ef97596018d43047a40dab6b021"
      }
    },
    "sidechainEpoch": 1295
  },
  "id": 1
}

From the return you need to obtain the proof/bytes and remove the 0x that is prepended. Call that string merkleProof.

In the above example d8799fd8799... is the Merkle proof.

Wait until the epoch changes and the committee handover has happened.

Note: A sidechain epoch is 1 hour; 30 minutes in the regular phase, 15 minutes in closedTxBatch phase, and 15 minutes in handover phase.

The committee handover happens automatically on the testnets by a service (relay) that tries every minute to find epoch signatures, and succeeds after a new epoch has started and the signatures are obtained. On mainnet, the committee handover will be done by anyone who wants, where there will be an incentive to do so. A good way to verify this is to wait until you observe your transaction in the list of signatures to upload:

curl -L -X POST -H 'Content-type:application/json' -d '{
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "sidechain_getSignaturesToUpload",
    "params": [<limit>],
    "id": 1
    }' https://faucet.sidechain.evmtestnet.iohkdev.io/ | jq

Where limit = min(limit, number of epochs that are not yet relayed). The default value is 100, but you can set it to any other number. Normally, when the handover happens at every epoch, it should only show 0 or 1 epochs (the last one). Once you identify that there are no roothashes pending in the list under the epoch that your lock was processed (N or N+1), you can claim your tokens. By now the epoch will be N+1 or N+2, depending on the phase you performed the lock operation in.

Step 04 - Claim SC_Token

  • Claim the tokens by submitting a transaction on the main chain with the merkleProof you obtained using the sidechain-cli. You will need to sign the transaction with your main chain signing key (ex: payment.skey):
./sidechain-cli claim-sc-token \
--sc-evm-url https://faucet.sidechain.evmtestnet.iohkdev.io \
--signing-key-file /PATH/TO/payment.skey \
--combined-proof <merkleProof without 0x>

Example output:

{
  "endpoint": "ClaimAct",
  "transactionId": "1334b3dab421911af68b9393e5cc4756c46c9ab1ac567a57450597e174351a48"
}

๐ŸŽ‰ Congratulations! At this point, you have successfully claimed your SC_Token on the main chain.

Transfering tokens from the main chain to a sidechain

Step 01 - Burn SC_Token

To transfer SC_Token from the main chain to a sidechain, use the sidechain-cli to burn main-chain SC_Token.

./sidechain-cli burn-sc-token \
--signing-key-file payment.skey \
--sc-evm-url https://faucet.sidechain.evmtestnet.iohkdev.io/ \
--recipient ae3dffee97f92db0201d11cb8877c89738353bce \
--amount 10
  • --signing-key-file payment.skey: Generating a main-chain account creates a .skey file to sign transactions. The command gives the path to this file.

  • --sc-evm-url https://faucet.sidechain.evmtestnet.iohkdev.io/: Providing the JSON-RPC API url, or endpoint, to the sidechain network node.

  • --recipient ae3dffee97f92db0201d11cb8877c89738353bce: Defines the destination address on the sidechain where the SC_Token tokens will appear.

  • --amount 10: Defines the amount of SC_Token (on the main chain) to be burned for SC_Token (on the sidechain) at the conversion rate of amountx10^9.

The transaction will be stable on the main chain in approximately 12 minutes or 36 blocks. The sidechain will then add it to a produced block and the tokens should appear in the sidechain-account balance:

curl -L -X POST https://faucet.sidechain.evmtestnet.iohkdev.io/ -H 'Content-type:application/json' -d '{
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "eth_getBalance",
    "params": ["0xae3dffee97f92db0201d11cb8877c89738353bce", "latest"],
    "id": 1}'

Tip: Balance may be checked on a compatible Web3 wallet configured to the EVM sidechain testnet network.

๐ŸŽ‰ Congratulations! At this point, you have successfully burned your main chain SC_Token for a native sidechain SC_Token.